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高层建筑发生火灾该如何应对?

科普中国-健康伴我行 2017-07-13 作者:张泽英

  夏季天气炎热,是火灾的高发期,消防安全不容忽视,尤其是城市中的高层建筑越来越多,人口密度也随之增加,所以,更要提升人们的消防安全意识。那么,面对火灾,人们该如何逃生?又要如何防止火灾的发生? 选择消防产品时,需要注意些什么?

  高层建筑发生火灾的原因

  德国马克斯-普朗克研究所访问学者刘杰介绍,一般情况下,高层建筑失火主要有以下两个原因:一是大量使用 电器使电路超负荷,引燃附近可燃物,导致火灾;二是用火不慎,如煤气泄漏,泄露出的气体会与空气混合,形成爆炸性气体,遇到明火就可能引起爆炸,导致火灾。高层建筑起火后,扑救难度大,所以一旦发现火情,应立即拨打119;如果置身于火灾现场,应立即想办法进行自救、逃生。

  高层建筑发生火灾该如何逃生?

  人们处于高层建筑之中,一旦发生火灾,应该如何逃生呢?据齐鲁网报道,如果遇到高层发生火灾,需要注意以下三点:一是如果楼上着火,应立即从安全通道下楼,不要乘坐电梯;二是如果楼下着火,应尽量捂住口鼻、躲避烟雾;三是在选择躲避位置时,要尽量选择靠近马路或主要通道的房间,以便救援人员到达后可以及时发现受困人群。

  值得注意的是,火灾发生时,大家需要保持冷静,不要慌张,可以躲在相对安全的地方等待救援,并想办法呼救,或者迅速选择正确的路线逃生。逃生时,需要正确佩戴逃生面罩,或用湿毛巾捂住口鼻,尽量降低姿态前进,防止体内吸入毒气。

  如何预防火灾发生?

  预防火灾并不只是嘴上说说,而是需要每个人都行动起来,从小事做起。据《沈阳晚报》报道,为避免火灾,家中不能乱拉电线或超负荷用电,遇到插头松动、电线老化、管线脆裂等情况应及时更换;出门时应该断开不必要的电源,避免让电器长时间处于通电状态;长期不使用的设备应及时切断电源。同时,厨房在用气、用油时也应谨慎,有条件的家庭可以安装可燃气体报警器。

  如何选择合格的消防产品?

  在发生火灾时,合格的消防产品也可以挽救民众的生命、保护民众的财产安全。据《科技日报》报道,可以通过以下三个途径来辨别消防产品的真伪:

  1、看外观。正规消防产品的表面及包装应有清晰、耐久的标志,标志内容包括厂名、厂址、产品名称、产品型号、技术系数、商标编号等;

  2、看证书。如果商家不能提供正式的检验报告和认证证书,其销售的可能是假冒伪劣产品;

  3、看质量。在购买水枪、接口等消防产品时,可现场进行试验,如发现裂痕、漏水等情况,则为不合格的消防产品。

  本文由德国马克斯-普朗克研究所访问学者刘杰进行科学性把关。(专家擅长领域:防震减灾、地质地理、天气气候)

本文由科普中国专家中国建筑科学研究院研究员吕振纲进行科学性把关

责任编辑:xujinghui

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