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既污染环境又威胁健康 电子垃圾究竟应如何处理?

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-08-06

  在没有电视、电脑、手机等电器的时代,垃圾中还少见电子产品的身影。但随着电子产品越来越丰富,更新换代的时间越来越快,“电子垃圾”已经成了垃圾中的“常客”。那么,什么是电子垃圾?如果电子垃圾处置不当会造成哪些危害?又应该如何正确处理呢?

  据《科技日报》介绍,电子垃圾是对所谓的“废弃电气电子设备”(WEEE)的非正式称呼,它囊括内部含有由电池或电源供电的电路或电子元件、且到了使用寿命的任何家用或办公物品。《长沙晚报》补充称,电子垃圾主要包括各种使用后废弃的电脑、通信设备、电视机、电冰箱、洗衣机等电子电器产品。

  那么,电子垃圾如果处置不当,会对环境和人体健康会造成哪些危害呢?

  《长沙晚报》介绍,废旧家用电器中主要含有6种有害物质:铅、镉、汞、六价铬、聚氯乙烯塑料、溴化阻燃剂。如果将废旧电子产品作为一般垃圾丢弃到荒野或垃圾堆,其所含的铅等重金属就会渗透污染土壤和水质,经植物、动物及人的食物链循环,最终造成中毒事件的发生;如果对之进行焚烧,又会释放出二恶英等大量有害气体,威胁人类的身体健康。《人民日报》举例说,一节1号电池可以污染一平方米土地;一个纽扣电池能够污染60万升水;一只节能灯的含汞量渗入地下水层,将产生上百吨废水。

  针对电子垃圾的处理方式,《人民日报》介绍称,目前电子垃圾的处理主要包括两种方式,一是整体或部分直接再利用,比如将电子产品修复后以二手产品的形式售卖,对于无法修复的,则可以将可用零部件拆除,作为维修材料;另一种方式则是回收提取电子产品的原物料与能源,比如废弃电器中可以拆解、提炼出黄金、铜、铁等许多有价值的金属。

  《长春晚报》也提供了一些在日常生活中有效回收电子垃圾的方法。例如,旧电脑的处理可采取再利用的办法,通过回收整理升级后,无偿或低价提供给信息技术应用不发达的农村作教育和培训使用。此外,还应养成妥善处置电子垃圾的良好习惯,将电子垃圾送到电子产品生产企业或专门回收点,而不要为图省事或小利随便处置;此外,街道社区应设立电子垃圾专门回收点,设置“电子垃圾回收箱”等。(朱雅文)

  本文由中国科学传播研究所副研究员卜勇进行科学性把关。

  卜勇:中国科学传播研究所副研究员,中国科学技术大学理学学士,中国科学院认知科学博士,北京师范大学心理学博士后。目前专家主要研究领域为健康、环保、水利、节能、气象、人工智能、脑科学与认知科学等。

责任编辑:王超

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