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雷击伤害可不小 避免“遭雷劈”需要注意这些事

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-08-17

  据四川在线报道,7月3日下午3点半左右,四川省广安市邻水县王家镇破瑶村3组,6个孩子围着一棵不足3米高的枇杷树玩耍,一道闪电击中枇杷树,树上的3个孩子被击落在地,树下的3个孩子被雷电击晕。事故造成一个孩子当场身亡,其他5个孩子不同程度受伤。那么,雷击究竟会给人类带来哪些危害?我们又该如何防范雷电呢?

  人体遭受雷击可不是个小问题,据浙江在线报道,一般情况下,雷击会对人体造成三种致命伤害:

  1.伤害神经和心脏。强大的闪电脉冲电流通过心脏时,受害者会出现血管痉挛、心搏停止,严重时心脏会停止跳动。雷电电流伤害大脑神经中枢时,也会使受害者停止呼吸。

  2.烧伤。电流、电压作用于周围空气,出现局部高温,瞬间温度可达两三千摄氏度。强大的电流通过肌体时会造成电灼伤、肌肉闪电性麻痹甚至烧焦。

  3.雷电冲击波造成的内伤。这部分患者遭雷击后,可能表面看着没什么事,其实已经出现颅骨骨折和内脏损伤。

  那么,在日常防雷中,我们该注意些什么呢?

  首先,《健康报》介绍,我们应该注意避免引雷电上身,做到“五避”:避免雷电入“户”(勿敞开门窗);避免雷电入“器”(勿开启电器);避免雷电入“树”(勿在树、杆下躲雨);避免雷电入“顶”(勿在山顶、楼顶等高处逗留);避免雷电入“墙”(勿触摸墙上避雷针等金属)。

  其次,雷雨天打伞可能引发“伞电”,需要提高警惕。据《健康报》报道,雷雨天气用伞应做到“四忌”:忌用金属把的雨伞;忌在电器设施下撑伞;忌在高处使用雨伞;忌收纳雨伞时紧贴通电设备。

  此外,《科技日报》补充道,对于个人而言,夏季雷雨高发,尽量不要在水面附近停留,如游泳、钓鱼、水边玩耍等都十分危险;雷电发生时,不可赤脚奔跑,尽量到低洼处躲避,尽量不要拨打和接听电话,连戴耳塞听歌都有造成伤害之虞;避免在户外骑摩托、自行车,也不要将金属工具扛在肩上行走。而对于城市建筑而言,雷电最易造成通信、电力、电子设备的损坏,因此市政工程和建构筑物上要规范安装避雷装置;已安装避雷装置的,须定期开展安全检测,易燃易爆场所,须每半年检测一次,一般建构筑物每年检测一次,确保避雷装置的有效性。(陆春振)

  本文由北京市气象台首席预报员张琳娜进行科学性把关。

责任编辑:王超

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