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天气释惑:"来得快去得快"的冰雹为何会发生在夏天

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-07-20

  冰雹是我国常见的一种气象灾害,它不仅具有很强的破坏力,而且“来得快去得更快”,预报难度大。很多人对于冰雹都有这样的疑惑,夏天的天气十分炎热,为什么还会出现冰雹呢?

  先让我们来看看冰雹是如何形成的。据南方网介绍,冰雹是一种强对流天气现象,往往伴随强雷暴出现。在发展强盛的对流云中,云顶高度可以达到一万米以上,那里的温度在零下30~40℃。云中的上升气流不断将云下部增长的水滴送到云的中部成为过冷水滴,云中的下沉气流可将上部的冰晶、雪花带到中部,过冷水滴和冰晶碰撞在一起形成了冰雹的核心。冰雹核在云中0℃层随上升和下沉气流不断升降、运动和增大,并像“滚雪球”一样越来越大,当上升气流再也托不住不断增大的冰雹时,便降落到地面形成我们看到的冰雹。

  那么炎热的夏季为什么会下冰雹呢?据中国江苏网报道,气象台专家解释说,冰雹本来就是春夏季节的一种灾害性天气,也是强对流天气的一种,虽然发生的概率比雷电、大风、短时强降雨等小得多,但也属正常。虽然夏季气温高,但高空的温度依然在零下,含有大量水汽的热气流迅速升向高空,冷却变为水滴再变为冰珠。冰雹是在积雨云和强烈的空气形成对流运动的过程中产生的,冬天空气比较稳定,上下的“气流差”没有夏天大,空气垂直对流运动没有夏天强烈,所以反而不容易形成冰雹。

  冰雹来势猛、强度大,并常伴随狂风、强降水等天气,且冰雹会造成一定破坏。那么遇到下冰雹的天气,我们该怎么做呢?河北新闻网给出了以下建议:老人、小孩不要外出,留在家中;妥善安置易受冰雹影响的室外物品;如在室外,应用雨具或其他代用品保护头部,并尽快转移到安全的地方暂避,同时谨记应急防雹口诀——“雹来顺风走,顶风就扭头”,以免被冰雹砸伤面部;不要进入孤立的棚屋、岗亭等建筑物或站在大树底下;躲避时要远离照明线路、高压电线和变压器,以防触电。

  如果下冰雹时正在开车,应降低车速,减缓冰雹与车辆的冲击力;尽快将车辆停在附近的地下停车场;若没有车库,尽量驶入有遮挡处,但不要停在树下;室外停车躲避冰雹时,应打开双闪灯,天黑时应打开示宽灯提示后方车辆。(许庆)

  本文由北京市气象台首席预报员张琳娜进行科学性把关。

责任编辑:王超

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