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近期强降雨多发 如何应对其引发的次生灾害?

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-07-20

  夏季是暴雨、雷阵雨等高发的季节,需要注意的是,这些强降雨天气可能导致一些次生灾害的发生。那么,强降雨可能导致哪些次生灾害?人们该如何应对这些灾害呢?

  据东南网报道,雨季降水集中期,需注意防范山洪泥石流、城乡渍涝和山体滑坡等次生灾害。下面就让我们来看看遇到上述次生灾害时该怎么办。

  遇到山洪泥石流时怎么办?据云南网报道,专家建议,在大雨天或连续阴雨时,要密切关注天气预报;在上游地区的人如果发现了泥石流特征,应设法立即通知泥石流可能影响的下游村庄、学校、厂矿等,以便他人及时躲避泥石流;在泥石流易发地区的居民不要留恋财物,要听从指挥,迅速撤离危险区;在沟谷内逗留或活动时,一旦遭遇大雨、暴雨,要迅速转移到安全的高地,不要在低洼的谷底或陡峻的山坡下躲避、停留;发现泥石流来袭时,不要顺沟方向往上游或下游跑,而是要向与泥石流方向垂直的两边山坡上面爬,且不要停留在凹坡处。

  遇到山体滑坡时该怎么办?《光明日报》建议,遇到山体滑坡时可通过下列方式自救:

  1.迅速撤离到安全地点。要朝垂直于滚石前进的方向跑,不要朝着滑坡方向跑。要听从统一安排,不要自择路线,更不要将避灾场地选择在滑坡的上坡或下坡。在确保安全的情况下,离原居住处越近越好,交通、水、电越方便越好。

  2.当无法继续逃离时,应躲避在结实的障碍物下,或蹲在地坎、地沟里。同时,应注意保护好头部,可利用身边的衣物裹住头部。

  3.滑坡停止后,不应立刻回家检查情况,因为滑坡会连续发生,贸然回家可能遭遇第二次滑坡的侵害。当滑坡已经过去,自家的房屋远离滑坡且被确认完好安全后,方可进入。

  至于城市内涝,中国水利水电科学研究院减灾中心主任丁留谦在接受新华网采访时表示,城市发生暴雨内涝时,低洼社区、下凹式立交桥、地下基础设施、危旧房屋等往往是受灾严重的对象,同时,无盖暴露的下水口及水中电线也宜造成人员伤亡,人员和车辆应尽量避开这些危险的地方。在雨季,市民应及时、密切关注降雨预报和暴雨内涝预警信息,预警发布后,尽量减少外出,外出要尽量避开易涝积水危险点和危险区,行车遇到积水点要切忌侥幸心理、不能盲目穿越,万一误入积水区导致车辆熄火,要赶快打开车门逃生,车里应备有破窗工具,以备积水较深、不能打开车门时,及时破窗逃生。(李依依)

  本文由北京市气象台首席预报员张琳娜进行科学性把关。

责任编辑:王超

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