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抢救溺水者首先要控水?小心延误了最佳抢救时机

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-08-01

  《健康时报》报道的一则溺水新闻让人心痛不已:5月27日,广东开平某水上乐园一8岁男童不慎溺水。一工作人员立即对溺水小孩实施“倒挂”急救。而后,医护紧急到场,实施心肺复苏术后送医,但最终经抢救无效死亡。那么,抢救溺水者时会出现哪些误区?应该如何正确抢救溺水者? 一旦溺水,人们又该如何自救呢?

  北京急救中心的李坚韧医师在接受人民网“求真”栏目采访时指出:“不少人错以为,抢救溺水者的第一步就是控水,其实这反而延误了拯救患者生命的最佳时机。”《北京日报》补充道,救助溺水者先急着控水完全是浪费时间。原因是水并不会阻塞气道。大家看到的溺水之后的各种反应,如青紫、呼吸或心跳停止等,都是缺氧产生的损害。简而言之,气道是通的,但人体里没有了氧气的及时供应。

  那么,应该如何正确抢救溺水者呢?解放军总医院第一附属医院重症医学科主任何忠杰教授在接受《人民日报海外版》采访时详细介绍了溺水时“ABC抢救”的顺序口诀:

  “A”是打开气道,使伤病员平躺在硬板或地面上,清除口腔内分泌物及呕吐物、假牙等,用压额提颌法打开气道。

  “B”是人工呼吸,捏紧鼻孔,用口唇包住患者口唇,平稳向内吹气2次,每次时间不少于1秒。每次吹气后,口唇离开,松开手指。

  “C”是胸肺按压,一手掌根放在胸骨与乳头连线中点,手臂伸直,双手交叉,手指互扣,用掌根按压,按压的幅度约为5~6厘米,按压和放松的时间大致相等,按压频率为100~120次/分。急救的时候要尽量减少按压的中断,保持连续性。

  一旦发生意外,溺水者又该如何自救呢?合肥市公安局水上救援队队长徐李奎在接受《法制日报》采访时建议,溺水者应尽可能把身上的重物品扔掉,寻找漂浮物抱住,或放松全身,让身体漂浮在水面上,将头部浮出水面,用脚踢水,防止体力丧失,等待救援。当身体下沉时,可以将手掌向下压。如果在水中突然抽筋,又无法靠岸时,立即求救。如周围无人,可深吸一口气潜入水中伸直抽筋的那条腿,用手将脚趾向上扳,以解除抽筋。(张智红)

  本文由长江航运总医院普外科主任医师,武汉大学医学院兼职教授曲波进行科学把关。专家对肝胆疾病、胃肠肿瘤、甲状腺、乳腺疾病的诊断和手术治疗有丰富的临床经验。

责任编辑:王超

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