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穿救生衣也会溺水?教你危急时刻该如何自救

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-07-13

  相关报道微博截图

  据新华社报道,当地时间7月5日17时45分左右,“凤凰”号和“艾莎公主”号在普吉岛附近海域突遇特大暴风雨,船只发生倾覆并沉没。“凤凰”号上载有101人,其中游客89人,87人为中国籍。“艾莎公主”号载有42人。遇难和失联人员均来自“凤凰”号。

  据《钱江晚报》报道,事件发生时船上的部分人员是在穿着救生衣的情况下溺水的。有些人不禁会问,为什么穿着救生衣还会溺水呢?

  甘肃宕昌红十字赈济救援队队员赵亮明在接受《钱江晚报》采访时表示,穿了救生衣还溺水是因为绝大部分人没有正确穿戴救生衣,没有系救生衣裆部的两根安全扣,有的救生衣甚至没有这两根系带,这样的救生衣穿了跟没穿一样。不系裆部安全扣到底差别在哪里?赵亮明曾做过实验,他表示:“当我从船头跳入海中的瞬间,救生衣迅速浮起,顺着身体卡在了颈部,导致呼吸困难,此时身体还在下沉。”当时赵亮明测试的就是穿救生衣而不系裆部安全绳的情况,“当我主动踩水想浮出水面的时候,救生衣反成了妨碍,导致我呛水。对会游泳的人来说,可能还能自己调节肢体,但不会游泳的人本身落水就已惊慌失措,救生衣无法帮助上浮会让他们更加慌乱,造成溺水。”

  那么应该怎样穿救生衣才正确呢?交通运输部上海打捞局高级工程师顾卫章介绍:第一步,救生衣套在颈上,将长方形浮力袋置于身前,系好领口的带子。第二步,将左右两根腹带分别穿过左右两边的扣带环,绕到背后交叉。第三步,将腹带穿过胸前的扣带环并打上死结,或者固定好扣带环,然后把裆部的两根扣带扣牢固。最需要注意的一点就是,要将带子打死结,以免带子因跳水时受到冲击或漂浮较长时间而松开。此外,跳水后使身体飘浮在水面上,注意脸部朝上。

  除了穿好救生衣外,在发生沉船一类危险时我们该如何自救呢?据新华网报道,船难中,一般不鼓励先跳船,因为在水中,人体的体温丧失很快,而且也可能会被水流带走不知去向,增加搜救难度。如不得不弃船,也一定要先观察跳船的地方,环境允许的情况下可以跳,注意避开浅滩礁石。要迅速离开沉船,如果船只倾覆,一定要向船头船尾跳。顾卫章提醒,冬季水温较低时,如遇险,落水前尽可能穿着厚实衣裤,在水中保持待救即可,避免由于运动体温过早下降。此外,据新华网报道,落水后,一定要迅速离开船体,以防被漩涡再次吸入船只。同时应仰起头,使身体倾斜。保持这种姿态几秒钟后,借助救生衣的浮力,慢慢浮上水面。浮上水面后,不要将手举出水面,要放在水下划水,使头部保持在水面以上,以便呼吸空气。此外,顾卫章指出,落水人员尽可能集中待在遇险位置待救,发现搜救力量靠近,可以用声光或者鲜艳物品等发出指示,以求尽快被发现获救。

  但如果落水后没有救生衣,可以自制救生浮具。据中国新闻网报道,可以使用的有大帽子、塑料包袱皮、雨衣、衬衣、化纤或棉麻的带筒袖的上衣、长裤等。但应注意别将衣服全部脱掉,以保持正常的体温。将衣服改制成临时救生浮具的方法是将上衣脱下,纽扣全部扣住并扎紧袖口和领口,衣服下端也扎紧,在第二、三颗纽扣之间吹起使其膨胀,即可支撑体重。如用裤子则更理想,将两裤管扎紧,倒持使裤腰迎风张开,待两裤管胀满后,扎紧裤腰,便可做成一个非常好用的马鞍型浮具。另外,在船沉没时,一般有物品漂浮在海面上。未穿救生衣的落水者应在水中捞获并利用较安全可靠的、可用作救生浮具的漂浮物,在水中保持漂浮,等待救援。顾卫章还建议可寻找空瓶子等容器,用床单包好,这一方法制成的漂浮物比直接用衣服充当救生衣更加具有救助效果。(裴迎儒)

  本文由交通运输部上海打捞局高级工程师顾卫章进行科学把关。

责任编辑:王超

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