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洞穴救援牵动人心,听听科学家怎么说?

中国科学报 2018-07-12 作者:高雅丽 卜叶

  经过三天持续三轮的营救工作,7月10日晚,泰国清莱被困洞穴的12名少年足球队员以及一名球队教练,全部成功获救。

  中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所研究员陈伟海对《中国科学报》记者说:“这次泰国13名人员被困的主要原因是洞穴中突如其来的洪水,虽然专家可以通过科研调查数据判断洞穴具体情况,但一般探险者往往在进入前并不了解洞穴里面的情景。”

  据了解,被困人员所处的睡美人洞穴全长超过10公里,内部地形复杂,至今没人能走完全程,尤其是雨季时洞内水流湍急,水中淤泥堆积,能见度极低,给搜救工作造成很大难度。

  “我们注意到寻找该洞穴的天然出口、开凿人工‘烟囱’也是营救计划的一部分,其实临时找出口并不容易,开凿也经常发生意外。”陈伟海表示。

  这场“世纪大救援”集中了世界各地最优秀的潜水员、泰国海豹突击队、救援机构、医疗人员等各种力量,但救援工作依然困难重重。一位以志愿者身份参加救援的泰国前海豹突击队员,在潜水入洞救援时不幸牺牲。

  中科院地质与地球所研究员张寿越在《求生科学——中国科学家野外生存手册》一书中提到:“洞穴潜水是洞穴探险中最危险的项目,探洞殉难事故多发生于洞穴潜水。洞穴潜水员进入的是一个绝对封闭的、黑暗的水下世界,一旦遭遇不测,只能在黑暗、路径复杂的地下河道循着来路慢慢摸索回来,往往是九死一生。”

  救援入洞道路示意图显示,这条“生命线”直线距离超过4公里,又是曲折无比的地下隧道。通道里绝大部分路段已经被浑浊的污水淹没,同时隧道也很狭窄,最窄的地方只有六七十厘米宽。

  少年足球队所在位置距洞口大约4公里,虽然面临着巨大风险,但“洞潜”成为救援成功的有效办法——由2名潜水员引导1名受困者出洞。

  “地下洞穴是‘老虎’,如果不能掌握具体情况,它很容易‘吃人’。一般情况下,洞穴温度会随洞穴的高程和纬度而变化,部分洞穴还存在氧气不足、二氧化碳含量过高的情况。”中科院地质与地球所研究员尚彦军说。

  张寿越建议,入洞最好避开雨季,以防暴雨水流切断出洞道路。洞穴探险爱好者必须经过专门的探洞技能训练,包括单绳升降、攀岩、游泳、潜水、救护等技术,此外还要掌握测绘、地质以及生物基础知识。

  “洞穴有很多种,当洞穴探险者遇到洪水时,通常可以跑到上层躲避一下。其实我们平时应该加强重要洞穴的调查研究工作,形成数据库,以便意外发生时及时营救。目前中国洞穴大概有几十万个,其中3000多个已有记录和数据库,但目前仅供内部使用,以后可能会公开,供公众查阅。”陈伟海表示。

责任编辑:xujinghui

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