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微信截图_20171226163339.jpg

水的黏度由分子行为决定

科普中国-科学原理一点通 2017-12-26

  美国橡树岭国家实验室官网近日报道称,该实验室和田纳西大学(UT)的科学家联合开发出一种研究水黏度的新方法,能进一步揭示水分子的行为,也为实现基于液体的电子器件开辟了新路径。

  研究人员之一、UT教授江上武(音)表示:“尽管水对我们来说司空见惯,但它仍然是一种特殊的神秘物质,对其分子水平上的行为,我们仍然知之甚少。我们需要更好地理解它,挖掘其巨大潜能,尤其是在信息和能源技术领域的潜能。”

  以往的研究提供了水的原子结构快照,但科学家对于水分子如何移动仍然了解不多。为了获取更清晰的照片,ORNL-UT联合团队使用高分辨率无弹性X光散射,来测量水分子的运动。他们惊讶地发现,水分子间氧—氧键的动力学并非随机的,而是高度协调的。当水分子之间的键被破坏时,强氢键会“受命于危难之间”,在特定时期内,维护稳定的环境。这种氢键是一种量子力学现象,也是水拥有包括黏性(决定液体流动或改变形状时会遇到多大阻力)在内的各种不同属性的原因。

  

  江上武解释称:“我们发现,水分子改变‘相邻’分子所花的时间,决定了水的黏度,新发现有助我们进一步研究如何更好地控制其他液体的黏度。”他们也将在最新研究的基础上,进一步确定液体黏度的起源和其他动力学属性。

  该研究也可用于描述离子、盐水、液体以及其他液体物质的分子行为和黏度,同时也将帮助研制具有液体电解质绝缘层的新型半导体设备、更高性能的电池以及润滑剂等。

  总编辑圈点

  在普通人眼里,水实在太平凡了,那么常见,又其貌不扬。但在科学家眼里,水实在太神秘了,它性质独特,因为氢键的存在,又那么多变,真是风情万种,撩人心弦。水在微观结构上真的很复杂,人们对它更细节的性质还知之甚少,正如此文所展现的,科学家还不大清楚水分子如何运动。采用新的方法后,水分子的运动英姿才得以展现。这是一个基础性的发现,但在此之后,应用的大楼才有可能拔地而起。

责任编辑:科普云

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