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我国科学家牵头发现新型重子

科普中国-科技前沿大师谈 2017-12-21

  

  北京时间7月6日,欧洲核子研究中心大型强子对撞机(LHC)上的实验组宣布首次发现双粲重子。该发现由中国科学家主导。国际合作组已将研究论文提交至《物理评论快报》。

  LHCb中国组负责人,清华大学高原宁教授介绍道,按照夸克模型的分类,重子由三个夸克组成,熟知的质子和中子是最常见的重子。自然界中存在六种不同夸克:u, d, s, c, b, t。前三种较轻,后三种较重。理论预期存在很多种具有不同组分的重子。此前发现的重子最多含有一个重夸克,但此次发现的重子含有两个重夸克。这次发现的重子含有两个c夸克(粲夸克)和一个u夸克(上夸克),带两个单位电荷。

  高原宁说,由于c夸克质量远大于u夸克,它的内部结构预期迥异于普通重子,对其性质的细致研究将有助于人类深入理解物质的构成和强相互作用力的本质。

  实验发现的双粲重子质量大约是3621兆电子伏特,通过弱相互作用衰变到重子和三个轻介子。为了得到这个结果,中国组全体人员付出了极大的努力。“我们从年初开始就全力以赴,保证了实验分析的每一个环节都扎实可靠。”高原宁说:“发现粒子仅仅是个开始,由两个甚至是三个重夸克组成的重子还有很多没有被发现,未来的研究依然会非常地激动人心。”LHCb实验的物理协调人文森佐·瓦格诺尼博士表示:“中国同事在LHCb实验上的物理研究非常活跃。2015年他们主导了五夸克态的发现,这一次又主导了双粲重子的发现。”

  LHCb中国组由清华大学、华中师范大学、中国科学院大学和武汉大学的研究人员组成。中国组从2010年便开始了寻找双粲重子的尝试。(记者操秀英)

  

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