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最新测量表明质子质量比想象的轻

科普中国-科技前沿大师谈 2017-12-22

  据《新科学家》杂志网站3日报道,一个国际研究团队的最新实验称,对单个质子的质量进行了最精确测量,结果其比之前实验值更小。新研究有助于揭开宇宙中物质比反物质更多的谜团。

  德国马克斯·普朗克核物理研究所的斯文·斯特姆带领国际团队,在一个被抽成真空并冷却到绝对零度(-273.15℃)的1.5升密封罐内进行了测量实验。他们用电子束撞击密封罐内的塑料靶标,使其释放出质子,然后用离子阱装置将单个质子“囚禁”在电磁场内。质子在磁场内做环形运动,通过测量加速度,可以推算出单个质子的质量。

  斯特姆团队发表在预印本网站arxiv.org上的结果,已经提交给科学技术数据委员会(CODATA)。该委员会专门负责收集基本物理学测量数据并定期出版,以供科学界参考使用,再过几个月,最新版物理学标准数值即将修订出版。“最新测量所用的实验方法非常复杂,但结果真的非常精确。虽然比之前实验测得的数值更小的原因还不清楚,但我们会认真考虑如何处理。”CODATA成员皮特·摩尔说。

  每个原子至少包含一个质子,这意味着,准确测量质子的大小、电荷和质量等基本特性,有助于解决许多重要物理学问题。比如,用类似方法测量反质子的质量,可以比较质子与反质子的质量差,科学家可据此调整与“为何宇宙中物质远超反物质”相关的实验,为这些困扰物理界多年的难题找到答案。

  斯特姆表示,他将带领团队成员继续重复实验,并利用各种新技术改进实验,以更高的精确度对质子质量进行测量。(记者聂翠蓉)

  更多精彩!欢迎关注“科普中国-科技前沿大师谈”官方微信(kjqydst)。

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