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秋季来临 天蝎座即将在夜空谢幕

人民网 2017-09-29

  在北半球夏秋之交的夜空舞台上,除了壮阔银河银心的华丽演出即将谢幕外,还有一个让无数爱好者“牵肠挂肚”的壮丽星座也逐渐在日落后沉入西方,湮没在落日的余晖中。它有着极为明显的形状,有着任性的“大蟹鳌”,飘逸的长蝎尾紧紧的勾着银河,火红的心脏闪耀在夜空。它就是位于天秤座和人马座之间的最为“张牙舞爪”的星座——天蝎座。

  天蝎座拉丁名为Scorpius,是为人熟知的黄道十二星座之一,它中心位置位于赤经16时40分,赤纬-36度,接近银河中心,蝎尾指向东南,在蛇头、人马、天秤等星座之间。夏季出现在南方天空。

  在中国古代天文学中,天蝎座身体部位的三颗星称为商星,猎户座腰带处的三颗星称为参星。天蝎和猎户分别是夏天和冬天最显著的星座,刚好一升一落,永不相见,不可能同时出现在天空上,因此杜甫有诗曰:“人生不相见,动如参与商。”

  天蝎座的心脏(主星)为天蝎座α星心宿二,是全天第十五亮星。它是一个红超巨星,并与一个蓝色主序星组成一个目视双星系统,其光度为太阳的10900倍,肉眼可见其靓丽的红色。

  心宿二在我国古代又称大火,属东方苍龙七宿的心宿,被用来确定季节。传说中国在4000多年前颛顼时,就设立了火正的官职专门负责观测这颗星。关于它的故事,要从一个成语“七月流火”说起。

  相传三千年前有一个豳国,在今陕西省彬县,很早以前是周民族的农业文化发祥地。那时历法尚未完善,指导农事活动要靠观星。每年夏末,一颗名叫火的红星,出现在正南方天空。依据观察经验,农夫知道夏天要结束了,秋天要来了,一年中最忙的秋收时节到了。

  匆匆又是数日,秋夕同一时刻,农夫又看南天,发现那颗大火较之数日前向西移下坠了。又过数日,西移下坠更甚。一个月后的同一时刻,再看南天,大火已移坠到西边地平线上,翳于云雾,遮于山岳,看不见了,这个过程就叫“七月流火”。火在这里专指天蝎座α星,而不是“赤日炎炎似火烧”中的火。所以,《豳风·七月》开头两句即为“七月流火,九月授衣”。还需要说明的是,三千年前用太阴历。在现代若想观察,阳历九月是最佳时机。

  天蝎座除了“一颗红心”外,还因为它位于接近银河中心的位置,所以其内部的深空天体也是众多爱好者津津乐道的目标。它所包含的深空天体非常丰富,如疏散星团M6(蝴蝶星团)、M7(托勒密星团)、球状星团M4、M80以及著名的疏散星团NGC 6231。其中M7是天空中最为著名的疏散星团之一。它拥有许多蓝色的亮星,夜晚时分凭肉眼就能在天蝎座的尾部看到它。M7距离我们1000光年,由大约100颗的恒星组成,年龄在两亿年左右,大小约为25光年。

  七月流火,九月授衣,趁着天凉之前,抓紧天蝎的尾巴,为它今年的圆满落幕鼓掌欢呼吧。(王俊峰)

责任编辑:李阳阳

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