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经不起考验:哈佛大学的“金属氢”再遭质疑

科技日报 2017-03-23 作者:姜靖

  哈佛大学物理学家造出地球上首块金属氢一事再遭质疑。“哈佛大学称其将压力做到495GPa,几乎是海平面大气压的500万倍,从而得到世界上首块金属氢。他们量压力的方法,经不起考验。照他们的数据看,应该没有超过300GPa的压力。”美国国家科学院院士、英国伦敦皇家科学院外籍院士、中国科学院外籍院士、国际著名高压物理专家毛河光22日接受科技日报记者采访时表示。

  自1935年科学家首次预测用足够的压力挤压,氢就呈现出金属态特征——导电性以来,在实验室里制备金属氢一直被誉为高压物理学的“圣杯”。

  近日,毛河光在《美国科学院学报》发表文章称,该团队使用了一种“掺杂”了氩原子的氢化合物Ar(H2)2,该化合物常用于建立一种“预压缩”形态并促进金属氢的形成。然而,在360GPa下,纯氢和掺杂氩原子的氢都没有变金属。“哈佛大学的研究结果非常值得怀疑”,他说。

  该事件的另一疑点在于,哈佛大学宣称,考虑到金属氢的不稳定性,他们在钻石压砧上镀了一层氧化铝薄膜护住钻石,以免钻石在巨大压力下变脆碎裂。也就是说,他们对金属氢样本的观测均是透过钻石以及氧化铝薄膜进行。

  “这样一来,即便观察到反光闪亮物质,也不见得是金属氢。”毛河光说。《自然》杂志也曾报道称,闪亮的金属可能是氧化铝,氧化铝在高压下也可能有不同的表现。此外,研究人员只在最高压力下对样品进行了一次极简单的测量,使人们难以看出压力在实验过程中是如何变化的,甚至怀疑样品中的氢漏掉了。

  正当业界高呼哈佛大学应进行进一步的验证性实验,哈佛大学研究人员却以“验证性实验可能会破坏他们宝贵的样本”为由,“只是想在验证实验前先将消息公之于众”。让该事件更为扑朔迷离的是,论文发表后不足一个月,该团队对外宣称,因操作失误,这块样本消失了。

  毛河光说,从目前的理论计算和实验研究来看,金属氢在常压下很可能是不稳定的。为解决金属氢的稳定性,还需要在高压下对金属氢的物理性质进行测试研究,并建立较大体积的超高压实验装置等。

  “除了研究如何实现氢的金属化转变外,更重要更难的是得到常压下稳态的金属氢,这是金属氢研究中一个必须解决的问题,也是使金属氢实用化的关键。”他说。

责任编辑:王超

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