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黑洞1.jpg

黑洞从星系获得“养料”方式揭示

科技日报 2017-08-17 作者:张梦然

  英国《自然》杂志15日发表的一项天体物理学研究称,天文学家发现一特大质量黑洞从水母星系获得“养料”,并解释了这种“供养”的方式。

  超大质量黑洞的质量可达太阳的数10亿倍至100亿倍,其亮度最终会使所在的整个星系相形见绌,甚至一些星系的演化会受其中心特大质量黑洞的影响。一般认为,大部分星系的中心都包含特大质量黑洞,包括在银河系中心同样占据着这样一个黑洞。但是,只有少数会吸积(指致密天体由引力俘获周围物质的过程)物质,产生高能活跃星系核(AGN)。

  而水母星系拥有较长的气体“触角”和新生恒星,因外形如同水母而得名。科学家认为,水母星系出现这样外形的原因是由于该星系之前与另外一个星系发生了碰撞,因此其形成过程关系到星系碰撞的演化之谜。同时,这些特征也表明,该星系穿过星系团内介质(星系团内星系之间的气体)时气体被剥离,这个过程被称作“撞击压力剥离”。

  意大利国家天文物理研究所—帕多瓦天文台研究人员比安卡·伯杰恩迪及其同事,此次对7个水母星系进行了观测,发现其中6个存在高能活跃星系核。研究人员提出,使气体从这些星系中剥离的撞击压力,可能也将气体导向中心特大质量黑洞,从而触发了高能活跃星系核活动,这正是特大质量黑洞能从水母星系中获得“养料”的方式。(记者张梦然)

责任编辑:李阳阳

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