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“世界最大飞机”有望2020年携运载火箭升空

新华网 2018-08-22 作者:郭爽

  同许多富豪伙伴一样,美国微软公司联合创始人保罗·艾伦也将目光瞄准商业航天发射市场。他创立的航天企业20日公布了最新发展计划,世界上翼展最大的飞机有望于2020年携运载火箭升空。

  据介绍,这款飞机将携带不同类型的火箭从地面升空,然后让火箭在高空点火、发射、脱离大气层,将卫星送入轨道。

  为争夺商业卫星发射市场,艾伦2011年创立了美国斯特拉托发射系统公司,打算借助飞机将火箭运至空中发射,这种做法较传统地面发射方式更准确、快速,成本也更低。

  “我们很兴奋,能够首次分享一些关于我们发展的一些细节,我们将用专门的运载火箭提供不同于任何其他公司的灵活发射能力,”公司首席执行官琼·弗洛伊德20日在一份声明中说,“无论载荷、轨道如何,将你的卫星送入太空很快将变得像预订航班一样简单。”

  按计划,负责运送火箭的飞机是一架有着世界上最大翼展的双体飞机,它有两个机身、六个引擎,翼展达117米,接近一个标准足球场的长度。

  这架飞机首先挂载的将是美国诺思罗普-格鲁曼公司建造的“飞马座”火箭,这款空射型运载火箭先前已多次搭乘其他载机发射成功。“飞马座”最多可将370千克载荷送至400千米高空,它与上述双体飞机的首飞定于2020年完成。

  此外,斯特拉托发射系统公司计划在2022年发射空射型中等运载火箭,它的有效载荷为3400千克。有效载荷可达6000千克的加强版中等运载火箭目前仍在早期开发阶段。

  据介绍,该公司还打算研发一款可重复使用的空天飞机,这种可将载荷运至太空并带回地球的飞行器与美国空军的X-37B空天飞机相似,但最终目标是实现载人。不过,这款空天飞机眼下仍处于设计研究阶段。

  现阶段,商业航天发射市场竞争日趋激烈,美国太空探索技术公司、联合发射联盟公司、蓝色起源公司等企业纷纷崛起。看好空中发射系统的航天公司也不止斯特拉托发射系统公司一家,英国的维珍银河公司也在开发类似系统。

责任编辑:王超

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