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人类首次在系外行星大气中发现铁

科技日报 2018-08-16

  英国《自然》杂志15日发表了一项行星科学重磅研究:天文学家们确认在一颗“发高烧”的系外行星KELT-9b的大气中,探测到了铁和钛。这是人类历史上首次在系外行星大气中发现铁。

  KELT-9b是一个非常罕见的例子,它作为一颗行星,因为正在“发烧”,温度几乎与一个暗恒星相当。这是由于它的运行轨道太过于接近主星,强辐射使得其表面温度极高,甚至也“活”不了多久。严格来讲,KELT-9b是一种超高温类木行星,这类行星是恒星和气态巨行星之间的过渡天体,天文学家此前曾预测,KELT-9b的大气无云。而铁虽然是丰度最高的过渡金属元素,但由于耐火性较好,天文学家从未在系外行星大气中直接探测到铁。

  不过,在高温状态下,大气中的铁和其他过渡金属元素,并不以结合分子或云粒子的形式存在,而仅以原子的形式存在,天文学家由此预测,KELT-9b的可见光波长范围内应该能检测到铁元素谱线。

  此次,瑞士伯尔尼大学研究人员延斯·霍伊梅克斯、凯文·亨及同事,借助西班牙加那利群岛拉帕尔马岛的国家伽利略天文望远镜上装载的北方高精度径向速度行星搜索器(HARPS-N)光谱仪,于2017年7月31日至8月1日夜间对KELT-9b的高分辨透射谱中的金属元素谱线进行了辨认。

  研究团队采集并分析了KELT-9b从其母星前面经过时的数据,检测到了中性铁原子和一次电离铁(Fe和Fe+)以及一次电离钛(Ti+)。研究人员还发现,检测到的Fe+谱线比Fe谱线强度要大,并据此分析认为,KELT-9b的大气温度约超过了4000开氏度(3726.85℃)。此次的发现和这颗行星的状态都颠覆了以往的认知,将进一步推动行星演化学研究。(记者张梦然)

责任编辑:王超

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