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谈家桢——在遗传科学事业上勇攀高峰

科普中国-科技前沿大师谈 2018-08-10

  他,少年志学,远赴重洋,成为现代遗传学奠基人摩尔根门下得意弟子;他,心系祖国,而立之年毅然回国执教,并将“基因”一词带入中文,壮年之际建立了我国第一个遗传学专业;他,坚持真理,勇攀科学高峰,以毕生心血换来我国现代遗传学事业从无到有、从弱到强。一颗国际编号为3542号的小行星以他的名字命名。他就是我国杰出的科学家、教育家谈家桢。

  1909年,谈家桢出生于浙江宁波,1926年,他高中毕业被保送至苏州东吴大学,主修生物系。“我小时候常对着镜子问自己:我是怎么变出来的?人又是从哪里来的?到底谁创造了世界?”谈家桢说,为了在科学的世界里找到答案,他读了本科、硕士,又到美国留学,回国后一举创立了异色瓢虫色斑镶嵌显性遗传理论,实现了自己要破解生命密码的理想。

  1937年,谈家桢担任浙江大学生物系教授。当时浙江大学辗转内迁,生物系被迫迁到湄潭的一个破旧不堪的唐家祠堂里。在此后的很长一段时间里,这个祠堂就是生物系唯一的实验室。谈家桢带领学生在昏暗的煤油灯下,用显微镜观察果蝇和瓢虫,从事教学和科学研究。1944年,正是在这间祠堂“实验室”里,谈家桢发现了瓢虫鞘翅色斑变异的镶嵌显性遗传现象。这一创新性研究成果,被列为教科书的经典内容。

  谈家桢一生为我国遗传学的发展作出重要贡献,研究工作主要涉及有关瓢虫、果蝇、猕猴、人体、植物等的细胞遗传、群体遗传、辐射遗传、毒理遗传、分子遗传以及遗传工程等。特别在果蝇种群间的演变和异色瓢虫色斑遗传变异研究领域有开创性的成就,为奠定现代综合进化理论提供重要论据。

  作为我国现代遗传学的奠基人之一,谈家桢推动和壮大了我国现代遗传学的发展,创建了我国第一个遗传学研究所,组建了第一个生命科学院,培养了一代又一代的遗传学优秀人才。2008年11月1日,谈家桢逝世。但他对于科研事业的坚持、真理的执着和教育事业的尽忠职守值得我们深深铭记。

  本作品为“科普中国-科技前沿大师谈”原创,转载时务请注明出处。

  作者: 钟艳平

责任编辑:王超

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