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H-13直升机——世界上第一架武装直升机的先驱

科普中国-军事科技前沿 2018-08-16

  出品:科普中国

  策划:肖春芳

  制作:中新起乐军情观察室

  监制:光明网科普事业部

  H-13直升机,由美国贝尔飞机公司研制,最初的陆军编号为R-13,后改为H-13。1947年,美国海军采购了该机,海军编号为HTL(1955年起又改为HUL)。H-13被广泛应用于医疗救护,在这个关键任务中,已经取代了固定翼的“蚱蜢”。

  美国空军与美国陆军赋予H-13的名称是“苏族”(Sioux)。“苏族”是北美土著印第安人的一个部落族群。从此,美军直升机命名形成一个传统,美国陆军和空军的军用直升机均用印第安人或印第安部落的名称命名,美国海军直升机则用“海”前缀命名。

  最初的R-13和HTL-1直升机的尾梁都加装了蒙皮。而到了空军的H-13C和美国海军的HTL-4,已经省去了在尾管上的蒙皮成为纯框架式的尾梁。美国海岸警卫队于1952年采购了3架HTL-5。HTL-5是在HTL-4基础上使用富兰克林公司O-335-5发动机的改型。

  1953年,美国在H-13直升机上安装了无控火箭、榴弹发射器、机枪和反坦克炮进行试验,从而提高了直升机的战斗性能,为以后武装直升机的发展创造了条件。

  20世纪80年代早期,最后一批H-13从美国军方退役。

责任编辑:王超

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