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坦克也分前后驱,细数发动机前置与后置的优缺点

科普中国-军事科技前沿 2018-08-14

  解说:我们都知道汽车分为前驱或后驱,但最终影响的无非是操控感与造价,而坦克装甲车辆作为军事用途,发动机的前后,在战场中可有着更加利害的影响。

  魏巍:比方说典型的发动机前置的坦克,以梅卡瓦坦克以色列梅卡瓦坦克为例。他们可能更多的考虑是对人员的防护,他们认为人是作战的时候最重要的资源,那么发动机放到车辆前面,实际上这种构型和很多装甲输送车运兵车是类似的。这样人员可以从后面进来,也就是它的人员进出方式与一般坦克相比是有很大的差异的。

  发动机放到前面或后面的,对有些因素影响比较大,比方说对于驾驶的舒适性,发动机放到前面,对驾驶员周边的环境,可能受到发动机的噪声影响也比较大,驾驶员的整个的视野可能也受到一定的局限。从维护性来讲,发动机放到前面,车辆前面的装甲上可能开的孔就要多一点,因为发动机要进气,要有各种各样的辅助系统。他们可能会在装甲上开设一些孔洞,这样的话可能会降低装甲的防护能力。另一方面,放到前面往往意味着主动轮也放到前面,主动轮就是驱动履带行驶的这个车轮,它放到前面的话就有可能更容易被击中,这样对整个车辆的保护可能相对来说可能会弱一些。

  发动机放到后面,是主流的主战坦克的一些配置手段,发动机放到后面一般来说是让传动系统一般也随着动力系统也就是发动机放到一起,这样的话它的动力传动系统作为一个整体,也便于调装、便于维修,这是它的维修性的考虑,驾驶的环境和条件也会相对来说好一点,驾驶员的视野也会好一点,操纵起来空间会更舒服。它的防护性能,因为主动轮一般也是后置,这样也相对来说也能够提升它的防护性能。

  【嘉宾】魏巍,北京理工大学机械与车辆学院车辆工程副教授、硕士生导师。研究方向为液力元件设计理论与测试,车辆传动系统现代设计方法,车辆自动变速系统理论与技术。

  监  制:战 钊

  制  片:白 璐

  策  划:白 璐 赵清建

  科学顾问:魏 巍

  摄  影:肖春芳 张佳兴

  后期剪辑:景晨龙

责任编辑:王超

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