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坦克护甲升级之旅,倾斜炮塔增加防御能力

科普中国-军事科技前沿 2018-08-14

  解说:装甲防护是坦克装甲车辆的主要特征之一,是抵御进攻的主要防护手段,随着军事武器的不断升级,坦克护甲从工艺到形态都发生了翻天覆地的变化。

  魏巍:早期在高性能的穿甲弹或者是破甲弹这些武器没有出现之前,装甲或者说纯钢均质装甲是坦克车体和炮塔的主要防护手段。初始阶段是采用竖直的平板放在这个车体前面,就能够挡住绝大多数的弹片和枪弹的进攻。随着反坦克武器的逐渐升级,装甲的厚度也逐渐增大。普通铆接工艺很难满足它装甲厚度实际的需求了。这个时候就产生了所谓的铸造形式的炮塔,铸造型炮塔有很多天然的优点,比方说它正面投影的面积比较小,相对来说会安全一点,有比较好的抗弹性能。

  在纯拼钢铁的防护性能时代,往往是设置具有一定倾角的装甲。设定角度的原因,比方说对于一定厚度的装甲板竖直放置和倾斜放置,对于水平进攻的穿甲弹来说,它的防御威力是不一样的。竖直放置要比倾斜放置需要的穿深距离要短很多。这个时候倾斜放置就能够提高我们的防护能力,这是第一个原因;第二个原因,倾斜放置的装甲板对于普通穿甲弹,可能会使它产生一定的跳弹效应,也就是当装甲具有一定倾角的时候,穿甲弹来进攻,打到一定的角度上,穿甲弹可能会跳飞,这样的话可以提升防弹能力或者抗弹能力,这也是它的一个优点。

  后期随着高性能的穿甲弹或者是破甲弹、碎甲弹等等这些武器的陆续登场,对应地复合装甲就登场了。复合装甲一般来说是有几层不同形式的材料组成的装甲。一般来说外面是有一个高性度低韧性的钢材,中间是一些非金属比方说陶瓷,最里面是一些低硬度高韧性的这样材料,这种材料的出现使得铸造构成这样的复合装甲形成了很大的困难。比方说T-64、T-80等等坦克,它实际上是在铸造炮塔中间掏出一个空腔,然后把复合装甲放进去。实现铸造中又采用复合装甲这样的一个形式,但是更多的方案采用的是复合装甲整体的焊接,因为这样它实现复合装甲覆盖的面积可能会更大一些,实现装甲整个的防护效果可能会更好一些。

  【嘉宾】魏巍,北京理工大学机械与车辆学院车辆工程副教授、硕士生导师。研究方向为液力元件设计理论与测试,车辆传动系统现代设计方法,车辆自动变速系统理论与技术。

  监  制:战 钊

  制  片:白 璐

  策  划:白 璐 赵清建

  科学顾问:魏 巍

  摄  影:肖春芳 张佳兴

  后期剪辑:景晨龙

责任编辑:王超

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