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麦茬绿豆高产栽培技术

科普中国-实用技术助你成才 2017-12-18

  1、合理轮作倒茬 绿豆忌连作,不能与豆科作物重茬,也不宜与大白菜等轮作。2、选用良种与种子处理 选种应与轮作计划相结合,根据下茬作物的播期选择株形紧凑、主茎粗壮、分枝力强、豆荚上举、优质、高产、抗病虫、抗倒伏的早中熟品种,如中绿5号、中绿6号、郑绿8号、冀绿7号、豫绿5号等。播前要晒种1~2天。3、合理整肥 适期早播“春争日、夏争时”,麦茬绿豆播种宜早不宜晚,能整地最好,来不及整地可铁茬播种,遇旱播后镇压。最佳播期为6月上旬,最迟6月15日前播完,播量1.5~2千克,播深3~4厘米。4、合理密植 一般早熟品种宜密一些,晚熟品种稍稀;直立型密一些、半蔓生型稍稀;肥地宜稀,薄地宜密。播种可采取条播或穴播,行距40~50厘米,株距16~20厘米,每亩留苗8400~10000株,高肥地走下限,反之走上限。5、科学施肥 绿豆施肥的原则是:注重底肥,巧施苗肥,重施花荚肥。基肥结合整地灭茬进行,每亩施腐熟有机肥1000~1500千克,过磷酸钙15~20千克,尿素4~5千克,或绿豆专用配方肥30千克,追肥应视苗情进行。为避免影响根瘤菌发育,一般田块苗期不再追施氮素化肥。铁茬抢播田块应根据苗情追施少量的三元复合肥。花荚期是绿豆需肥高峰期,为促花增荚,应在分枝期每亩追施45%三元复合肥5~7千克,另外在花荚期叶面喷施0.3%~0.4%磷酸二氢钾和1%尿素混合液2~3次,5~7天一次,每次50千克,都有很明显的增产效果。6、防旱排涝 绿豆怕渍怕淹,播后田问要开沟,使得暗水能渗,明水能排。若遇干旱及时浇水,但注意要以喷灌或小水引流为主,切忌大水漫灌。7、中耕除草 绿豆苗期一般结合培土中耕2~3次,第一次浅中耕,时间在第一片复叶出现时,以破土浅锄为宜;定苗后进行第二次中耕,这一次应深一些,以5~6厘米为宜;第三次应视绿豆长相而定,应在分枝现蕾前进行,这时根系已基本形成,以浅为宜,不要伤根。化学除草可分两次进行,在绿豆播种后、出芽前,每亩用90%乙草胺200毫升加水30千克喷雾。若因忙没有进行第一次化除,可在绿豆出苗后大部分禾本科杂草处于3~4叶期时,亩用5%的精禾草克乳油70~100毫升加水40~50千克,选择雨后初晴或早晚喷雾。土壤干旱时要加大稀释用水处理。对于双子叶杂草严重的田块,最好进行人工除草。8、病虫防治 对绿豆产量影响最大的病害是绿豆叶斑病和黄化病。两种病害一旦发生蔓延很快造成植株矮小,叶片黄化,过早枯黄或整株死亡,一般减产50%,甚至更多。叶斑病防治:发病初期开始,亩选用3%秀苗400倍液或绿亨3号加绿亨6号600倍液进行喷雾,7~10天一次,连喷3~4次。黄化病防治:黄化病发病初期前每亩用黄化消除灵一袋(0.6千克)加磷酸二氢钾150克加尿素0.5千克对水50千克喷雾,5~7天一次,连喷2~3次,防治效果在90%以上。绿豆的主要虫害是豆野螟(俗名抹花虫)、蚜虫、盲蝽象、蟋蟀。绿豆蚜虫和盲蝽象可选用20%啶虫脒1500倍液或吡虫啉1000倍液喷雾防治。防治豆野冥应抓住蕾期、盛花期两个关键时期,一般亩选用2.5%阿维菌素10毫升加水50千克喷施,7~10天一次,连喷3~4次,可有效防治豆野冥的危害,并兼治蟋蟀。9、适期收获 绿豆在豆荚变黑、籽粒硬化时即可收获。由于不同部位的豆荚成熟不一致,所以应分期采收,每次采集后喷施一次40%多菌灵或绿亨3号及磷酸二氢钾,延长叶片功能期,从而提高产量。当全田豆荚有三分之二以上变黑时,应一次收获。编辑:王媛媛 审核专家:山西省农科院作物研究所研究员 张海生

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