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如何有效应对因酷暑导致的生猪繁殖性能下降问题

科普中国-实用技术助你成才 2017-12-18

  夏季高温,是养殖业增产增效的一大障碍。持续的高温天气,严重影响生猪生长和种猪繁殖性能。额这其中,高温对种猪最为直接的影响,一方面是食欲减退、采食速度减慢、采食量降低,进而导致种猪的营养水平降低,能量和蛋白质摄入量不足。因此,每当进入夏季高温时期,生产中就要调整日粮配方,提高日粮中能量和蛋白质水平,保证猪有利于正常繁殖的营养水平。 这其中,在夏季养殖户应切实做好防暑降温工作。但是,当外界气温超过29℃时,提高风速加大通风量对畜舍降温的作用就大为减小。因此,在夏季高温时期只有通过冷却降温来控制舍温。 对工厂化猪场来说,最简单的方法是自制喷雾滴水系统,即在一根直径约2~3厘米粗的硬质塑料管上,每隔5~10厘米周径方向交错钻开0.2厘米左右的小孔再分别插上10厘米长的相应细管,设置于猪栏上方30厘米处。硬质塑料管口接自来水(有一定压力)。每当气温高于22℃时,每半小时或1小时打开喷雾滴水1~2分钟来冷却降温。当遇到极高温度(40℃以上)时,应采取紧急措施,如用水龙软管喷淋猪体、或水浴或在屋顶洒水。有条件的猪场可购买动力喷雾机,每天3~4次对地面、屋面及猪体喷淋降温(忌用冷水突然喷淋猪只头部)。 人为有意识地冲凉公猪睾丸无疑是降低高温对公猪繁殖影响的一个有效手段。值得注意的是,在实行冷却降温的同时, 猪舍的隔热设计、遮阳、防止水箱和水管受阳光直射都是不可缺少的技术手段。

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