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麻雀也是国家保护动物!它到底吃啥?

蝌蚪五线谱 2017-12-29

  走进北京的大街小巷,我们常能看到一种出镜率很高的小鸟——麻雀。我们平常俗称为“家巧儿”、“老家贼”,的麻雀是雀科,雀属的鸟类,它的中文名叫“树麻雀”。在自然界中,还有“山麻雀”、“家麻雀”、“黑胸麻雀”、“黑顶麻雀”等许多种能被称为“麻雀”的鸟类。

  麻雀也是国家保护动物!它到底吃啥?

  图片来源http://orientalbirdimages.org

  虽然树麻雀(简称麻雀)貌不惊人,它却在2000年被列入了我国的“三有动物”名录。任何非法捕杀、出售、食用麻雀的行为都将受到法律的制裁。为什么平凡无奇的麻雀会成为国家保护动物?这还要从50多年前说起。

  在历史上很长一段时期里,中国人普遍认为麻雀以谷物为食,是危害粮食生产的害鸟。1958年,中国展开了一场轰轰烈烈的“除四害”运动。麻雀和老鼠、苍蝇、蚊子一起,被列为需要清剿的“四害”。一时之间,全国人民纷纷开始掏窝、放炮、设网、投药,令成千上万的麻雀无处藏身,无法落脚,饥劳而死。那时候,不仅中国的麻雀数量锐减,许多其他的鸟类在这场运动中受到牵连。更讽刺的是,不久之后,全国各地陆续出现严重的虫灾,粮食减产。直到这时,人们才开始反思,意识到麻雀的生态价值。“麻雀到底吃什么?”这个问题引发了一场关乎麻雀物种存亡的大讨论。

  为了搞清楚麻雀到底吃什么,鸟类学家们组成调研团队,深入田间地头,采集解剖了近千只麻雀的标本,终于搞清楚了麻雀的食性。他们发现,麻雀不同季节的主要食物并不相同。夏秋冬三个季节,麻雀主要以谷物和草籽为食。而春季养育幼鸟时,麻雀会大量捕食虫子和虫卵,这对控制虫害起到了很大的作用。综合考虑,麻雀其实对农业发展也有积极的贡献。

  麻雀也是国家保护动物!它到底吃啥?

  图片来源http://orientalbirdimages.org

  有关麻雀食性的研究结论引起了政府的高度重视。20世纪60年代初,人们停止了对麻雀的大规模捕杀。麻雀凭借着较强的繁殖能力,种群的数量渐渐恢复。可是,到了20世纪80年代,随着农业生产中高毒性农药的使用,以谷物和昆虫为食的麻雀再次“躺枪”,种群数量大减。那时候,原本在中国广泛分布的麻雀,却在南方的一些省市几乎绝迹。连过去麻雀频频光顾的水稻田里,也很难找到它们的踪迹。除了农药的威胁,一些不法份子还偷偷布下粘网,捕捉麻雀食用、贩卖。上百只麻雀被捕捉杀害的新闻时有爆出。

  值得庆幸的是,近几年人们已经逐渐改变一叶障目的生态观,开始理性地看待麻雀的生态价值。在法律的约束与人们的共同努力下,麻雀的数量正在恢复,它又成了城市乡间人们“脸熟”的小鸟儿。然而不能忘却的是,麻雀作为一种受保护的野生动物,它的生存状况依旧值得我们的了解和关注。

责任编辑:李阳阳

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蝌蚪五线谱
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