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预防亚硝酸盐中毒要做到“五不吃”

新华社 2017-12-18

  记者从湖南省人民医院、湘雅二医院等医院获悉,近日,医院收治的亚硝酸盐中毒患者增多,其中一些患者是食用了小摊点售卖的鸭脖、卤菜等食品导致中毒。专家提醒,预防亚硝酸盐中毒,需要严把入口关。

  据湖南省人民医院急诊二科医生孙晓薇介绍,长沙22岁的周女士近日在家附近买了一些卤菜,食用后出现呼吸困难,全身皮肤、指甲泛青色,畏寒,抽搐等症状,家人赶紧将她送到湖南省人民医院马王堆院区进行治疗。

  据接诊的医生刘轶群介绍,周女士到院后口唇和四肢皮肤变成紫色,经测量,血液中的高铁血红蛋白含量为28%,高度怀疑亚硝酸盐中毒,经询问家属才得知周女士晚上吃了大量卤菜。经过吸氧、对症用药等相关治疗后,周女士才脱离了生命危险。

  刘轶群提醒,卤菜很多人都爱吃,但食用不当容易引起亚硝酸盐中毒。亚硝酸盐是一种氧化剂,能使血液中的低铁血红蛋白氧化成高铁血红蛋白,从而抑制正常的血红蛋白携带氧和释放氧的功能,致使中枢神经等组织缺氧。通常情况下,人体摄入0.2克到0.5克亚硝酸盐,就会引起中毒,摄入量超过3克即可致人死亡。一般在食后1至3小时起病,中毒的临床表现为高铁血红蛋白血症。中毒表现主要为缺氧表现,如头痛、头晕、乏力、心悸、恶心、呕吐、发绀,严重时可出现呼吸困难、肺水肿、血压下降、心律失常、惊厥等症状。

  专家指出,亚硝酸盐多存在于腌制的咸菜、肉类、不洁井水和变质腐败蔬菜中。预防亚硝酸盐中毒要严把入口关,做到“五不吃”:不吃腐烂变质的食物,不吃隔夜菜和变味的剩饭剩菜;不吃在冰箱放置过久的食品;不吃劣质熟食品(特别是外观鲜红的肉制品);不吃腌制时间不足15天的腌菜。(帅才)

责任编辑:李阳阳

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