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长寿也可以自己说了算?积极的自我认知有利于长寿

新华社 2017-12-11

  美国研究人员发现,人们如何看待自己与同龄人相比的运动量,也会影响到寿命长短。那些认为“自己比同龄人运动量小”的人寿命相对较短,即便他们实际运动量并不小。这表明,积极的自我认知和心态有利于长寿。

  美国斯坦福大学的研究人员分析了美国3个全国数据库中6万多人的调查数据,包括运动量、健康情况、个人背景等情况,关注被调查者对一个问题的回答,即“你认为你的体育运动相比同龄人更多、更少还是差不多?”随后还查阅了从2011年开始的被调查者死亡记录。

  在考虑了年龄、体重、慢性疾病等因素后,研究人员发现,相比那些认为“自己比同龄人运动量大”的人,那些认为“自己比同龄人运动量小”的人在21年里死亡风险高71%。

  相关研究报告最近刊登在《健康心理学杂志》上。报告作者、斯坦福大学心理学助理教授阿莉娅·克拉姆说,这一发现符合以往大量研究得出的结论,即人们的自我认知对健康有重要影响。在这项研究中,自我认知就是“自己的运动量与他人相比是多是少”。

  为什么自我认知会对健康产生影响?研究人员认为,那些认为自己运动量较多的人会增强体育锻炼,而那些认为自己运动量较少的人有可能更不爱运动,产生忧虑、紧张或消沉的情绪,从而对健康产生负面影响。虽然这一发现并不能证明“自己运动少”的自我认知是导致早亡的原因,但人们应该重视心态对健康的影响。

  克拉姆说,很多公共健康宣传活动鼓励人们改变习惯,如吃得健康、多运动、别紧张,但这其中遗漏了一个可变因素,即人们的心态。日常生活中经常出现一个简单想法可以带来生理影响,比如一想到事情可能变糟就可能出汗、颤抖、心跳加速等,但人们往往忽视心态对生理机能的这种影响。

  研究人员还说,很多人以为去健身馆锻炼是达到运动量的唯一途径,其实爬楼梯、步行、骑车上班、打扫屋子这样的日常活动也是运动的一部分,可以是人们提高健康水平容易做到的第一步。(记者马丹)

责任编辑:李阳阳

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