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01.jpg

你知道过敏是怎么回事吗?

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2017-07-10 作者:崔钟文

  由于空气污染、寄生虫感染减少、儿童期传染病减少、家庭生活条件的极大改善、人工乳和代乳食品增多及精神紧张度增加等因素的影响,过敏性疾病在近30年间至少增加了3倍,已经成为全球性的公共卫生问题。明日即将迎来第13个世界过敏性疾病日,人民网科普中国采访了首都医科大学附属北京中医医院皮肤科主任医师孙丽蕴和中国中医科学院广安门呼吸科主任医师王蕾,请她们来说说过敏性疾病。

  首都医科大学附属北京中医医院皮肤科主任医师孙丽蕴和中国中医科学院广安门呼吸科主任医师王蕾做客人民网。(郗若楠/人民网)

  提到过敏,人们可能都不陌生,但过敏究竟是怎么回事呢?对此,王蕾表示,过敏是人们身体上的一种过度反应。当一些无害的物质或元素进入人们的身体后,身体没能及时辨别而误认为它们是有害物质,由此产生了抗体,从而引发身体上的某些相关反应,包括皮肤上的某些反应、呼吸道的某些反应,以及胃肠道的某些反应。这些反应就叫做过敏反应。

  孙丽蕴也表示,“过敏其实就是过度敏感,就像含羞草一样,这种草特别娇嫩,别的花草遇到风吹草动没有太大的变化,但含羞草稍微被碰一下,叶子就会卷起来。”很多过敏体质的人恰恰就像含羞草一样,由于其过敏体质来自遗传,所以对于其周围一些特定的物质不耐受,这类人稍微受到一点外界刺激,就会使身体的皮肤或呼吸系统等发生过敏反应。

  人们为什么会产生过敏反应呢?王蕾表示,产生过敏反应的最主要因素是遗传因素,有研究证明,如果父母双方有一方是过敏体质,子女是过敏体质的机率可达40%~60%;而如果一个人的父母双方都是过敏体质,那么他是过敏体质的几率就可能达到60%~80%。所以,造成过敏最主要的因素是遗传。当然,产生过敏反应的因素还包括反复接触过敏原,比如有些过敏反应是职业性的,像在化工厂工作的人以及化学老师等,这类人群发生过敏反应的可能性也比较大。

  孙丽蕴也表示,遗传因素在中医中叫做“禀赋不耐”,过敏原也是过敏体质的人无法耐受的,因此,过敏体质的人应尽量远离过敏原,不要明知山有虎,偏向虎山行;另外,现在人们生活水平越来越高,对于一些“肥甘厚味”吃得越来越多,导致其积聚在体内成为“湿邪”,流窜到皮肤上就会引发皮肤过敏。

  受访专家:首都医科大学附属北京中医医院皮肤科主任医师孙丽蕴、中国中医科学院广安门呼吸科主任医师王蕾。

责任编辑:xujinghui

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