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有氧运动可延缓细胞、大脑衰老进程?

人民网 2017-12-21

  有氧运动包括很多种,如慢跑、快走、骑自行车等。人们都知道,有氧运动可以强身健体,但却很少有人知道,有氧运动还可以延缓细胞、有氧能力和大脑的衰老进程。那么,为什么有氧运动能够起到这些作用呢?

  首先,据新华网报道,有氧运动或能防止脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)“磨损”,从而延缓人体衰老。DNA存在于染色体中,每条染色体两端各有一个起保护作用、类似帽子的端粒。随着人体细胞不断分裂再生,染色体端粒会变短,覆盖染色体的面积变小,结果造成细胞衰老。比利时科学家在最新一期《科学进展》杂志发表的研究结果显示,有氧运动能令身体产生一种延长、增强端粒的酶,从而延缓人体衰老。

  其次,据《健康时报》报道,长期相对高强度的有氧运动能提高人的有氧能力,人的有氧能力的高低与生理年龄息息相关。从中年开始,人体的最大有氧能力开始持续下降,每10年大约下降5毫升。当男性的最大有氧能力降至18毫升以下,女性的最大有氧能力降至15毫升以下,而长期进行相对高强度的有氧运动能使最大有氧能力增强25%,也就是会增加6毫升,相当于减去10到12岁的生理年龄。因而有氧运动可以帮助延缓衰老。

  另外,有氧运动还可以延缓大脑衰老的进程。据《北京日报》报道,西悉尼大学等机构的研究人员综合分析了14篇临床研究报告,共涉及737人。在试验中,部分参与者被要求在3至24个月内,每周进行2至5次骑车、散步或跑步等有氧运动。研究人员对比了进行有氧运动的人与没有进行有氧运动的人在试验前后的大脑扫描图后发现,运动可以增加健康人的海马体体积。研究人员指出,这是因为运动时人体会分泌一种名为脑源性神经营养因子的蛋白质,这种蛋白质可以防止由衰老引起的脑功能退化,减缓海马体萎缩,保持脑健康。(赵鹏)

  本文由中国中医科学院副研究员代金刚进行科学性把关,目前的主要研究领域包括健康养生、康复锻炼、中医内科疾病、针灸、推拿、中药和传统锻炼等。

责任编辑:杨茗

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