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臭豆腐里并没有“屎” 卤汁才是“臭味之源”

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2018-07-13

  半个月前,一张臭豆腐的包装图疯传网络。原因是该产品包装袋上的配料表一栏中,除黄豆、饮用水等外,“屎”字赫然在列。尽管商家已辟谣,该图为网友恶搞的“作品”,但反观近些年大家对臭豆腐与粪水之间关系的讨论,似乎一直没有停止过。臭豆腐真的能用粪水做吗?臭豆腐的臭味来自于哪里?

  据《健康时报》介绍,不管是北方常吃的臭豆腐乳,还是南方风靡的炸臭豆腐,在制作过程中添加粪水的说法都闻所未闻。中国传媒大学附近的一家臭豆腐摊主在接受《健康时报》采访时表示,自己炸臭豆腐用的是“秘方”,但肯定不会用粪水来增臭。

  那么臭豆腐的臭味是怎么来的呢?卤液就是其中的关键。南京知名小吃店的赵师傅在接受中国江苏网采访说,制作臭豆腐的卤液是最讲究的,需要用隔年留下的烂咸菜汁做成。虽然样子难看,但卤液却是纯绿色、纯天然,没有添加任何色素,散发出来的也是很自然的臭味。用隔年烂咸菜汁浸泡,再经过发酵才得到“臭”豆腐。此外,南京一高校食品研究专家赵亚夫补充,臭豆腐属于发酵食品,它独特的风味是由多个菌种一起配合发酵产生的。

  中国江苏网进一步指出,目前来说,并没有既快速又安全的制作臭豆腐配方。臭豆腐只能按照传统方法,用卤水发酵浸泡而出。

  虽然臭豆腐里没有屎或是粪水,但调查发现还有一种臭豆腐是用“臭卤水”做成的。据山西新闻网报道,臭卤水是将腐肉、市场回收的死田螺、臭鸡蛋、咸菜和潲水搅和在一起发酵制出来的。如果卤水不够黑臭,将硫化碱、硫酸亚铁按比例兑水搅和,经化学反应后,水就会变得更黑更臭。太原市疾病预防控制中心化验科主任表示,采用一些腐肉和肮脏原料制作臭豆腐卤水首先是不卫生的,而往卤水内添加硼砂和硫化碱、硫酸亚铁等物质,更是国家明令禁止的。《健康时报》采访的国家高级食品检验师、二级公共营养师李广萍介绍,若经常吃这种速成臭豆腐,对消化系统和神经系统都会产生危害,加重肝脏负担。

  因此,建议大家在吃臭豆腐时,要挑选正规厂家生产或正规饭店烹调的臭豆腐。(陆靖)

  本文由科信食品与营养信息交流中心业务部主任阮光锋进行科学性把关。

责任编辑:王超

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