The Ramses II tank is a main battle tank designed for the armed forces of Egypt. A single T-54 was sent to the United States for upgrading. A primary prototype was sent to Egypt where extensive trials were completed in late 1987. The tank finally entered production in 2004–2005. A total of 425 units have been produced. The tank was originally called the T-54E ("E" stands for "Egyptian").
At early stages, the upgrade was concerned with the firepower and mobility of the tank solely, while latter stages included the improvement of the level of protection as well. The tank's hull was modified to accommodate the new engine which had a great commonality with the one used by the M60A3 (the most numerous main battle tank in active Egyptian service), as a result an additional road wheel was added. The tank is armed with the same main gun used by Egyptian M60A3's. In addition the tank is using a sophisticated fire control system.
In November 1984, Teledyne Continental Motors (taken over by General Dynamics Land Systems) of the USA was awarded a contract to upgrade the firepower and mobility of a single T-54 tank. This was originally called the T-54E but was subsequently renamed Ramses II. The first prototype of the Ramses II was sent to Egypt for extensive firepower and mobility trials in January 1987 and these were completed in late 1987. Late in 1989, Egypt signed a technical assistance agreement with TCM to support the continued Egyptian testing of the Ramses II, with testing commencing in the summer of 1990. The tank finally entered production/conversion in 2004–2005 with 260 units so far modified from the stock of the T-54 available in the Egyptian Army arsenal.