Esslingen is a district (Landkreis) in the centre of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from north clockwise) Rems-Murr, Göppingen, Reutlingen, Böblingen and the district-free city Stuttgart.
The district dates back to the Oberamt Esslingen, which was created when the previously free imperial city Esslingen became part of Württemberg in 1803. After several changes over the next century, it was converted into a district in 1938. Additionally, it was enlarged by adding several municipalities from the neighboring Amtsoberamt Stuttgart, Oberamt Schorndorf, Kirchheim unter Teck and Göppingen.
In 1973, the district was merged with the district Nürtingen (without Grafenberg). In 1975, two municipalities from the district Böblingen were added to give the district today's borders.
The district is cut into two halves by the river Neckar. The west part is part of the Filder plain, while the east is part of the mountains of the Swabian Alb (Schwäbische Alb).