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阿司匹林不是万能药 如何服用才能有效预防心血管疾病?

科普中国-科学为你解疑释惑 2017-10-20

  众所周知,阿司匹林对血小板的凝集有一定作用,所以它被广泛用于心血管疾病的预防中,但阿司匹林真的是预防心血管疾病的万能药么?它应该怎么用呢?

  

  各类药丸(郗若楠/摄)

  阿司匹林不是万能药

  据《北京青年报》报道,阿司匹林是一种历史悠久的经典老药,它不但具有抑制血小板聚集的作用,还能够镇痛、消炎、解热、抗风湿等,可以预防各种缺血性心脑血管病的发生,临床上许多中老年人都需要长期服用阿司匹林。

  但是,阿司匹林并非万能药。据《南方日报》报道,阿司匹林是抗栓药,即一种以抗动脉血栓为主要功能的药物,但它并不是抗凝药。动脉系统的血栓由血小板启动,阿司匹林和其他抗血小板的药物对这类血栓行之有效。而房颤引发的血栓由凝血系统启动,这种情况只有抗凝药物才有效,阿司匹林作用不大。

  预防心血管疾病该如何服用阿司匹林呢?

  据《中国医药报》报道,对于没有心血管疾病病史的患者来说,要想通过服用阿司匹林预防心血管疾病,需要满足以下条件:患者的预期寿命在10年以上,且自愿坚持服用小剂量阿司匹林至少10年以上。同时,患者在服用药物时需要谨遵医嘱,因为每天服用小剂量阿司匹林虽然有助于预防心脏病、缺血性卒中及癌症等,但也会增加胃肠道出血及出血性卒中的风险。

  服用阿司匹林可能产生阿司匹林抵抗现象

  有些人把阿司匹林当做神药,但《安徽日报》提醒,并非所有患者服用阿司匹林后均能获益。有时常规剂量甚至加大剂量的阿司匹林都不能完全抑制血栓素的生成和血小板的聚集,也就无法预防心脑血管疾病,这被称为阿司匹林抵抗现象(英文简称为AR)。此类患者可通过加用复方丹参滴丸的方式改善阿司匹林抵抗现象,但具体如何服药还需谨遵医嘱。(赵晨龙)

  本文由中华预防医学会健康风险评估与控制专业委员会委员、中科院医学心理学博士聂聪进行科学性把关。

  

责任编辑:王超

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