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动脉出血30秒就可能休克 教你两种简单有效的止血方法

科普中国-乐享健康 2017-10-25

  日常生活中磕磕碰碰在所难免,尤其在户外活动时,一不小心就会导致出血。人体的血容量通常是体重的8%,对于一个体重50公斤的人来说,其血容量大约有4000毫升。通常情况下,如果失血量超过血容量的20%,患者就有可能出现失血性休克;如果超过50%,患者就有可能死亡。那么,哪种出血情况比较危险?该如何帮助失血者止血呢?

  众所周知,血管分为动脉、静脉和毛细血管三种,不同血管出血会有不同特点:毛细血管出血时,血液呈鲜红色,缓慢渗出;静脉出血时,血液呈暗红色,缓慢溢出;动脉出血时,血液呈鲜红色,呈喷射状溢出。其中,动脉出血速度最快、危险最大,其具体速度与动脉内径粗细、破口大小及血压高低有关,以颈动脉出血和股动脉出血为例,失血800毫升一般不会超过30秒,这就意味着对于体重为50公斤的人来说,动脉出血30秒即有可能引起失血性休克。

  那么,如何帮助失血者止血呢?在众多止血方法中,直接压迫法比较常见,只要用手按压出血部位即可,但在操作时需要注意以下几点:

  1.注意保护自己。很多传染病是通过血液传播的,所以按压前要注意检查伤口处是否留有玻璃等尖锐物体。同时,在按压时可戴上手套,以避免手指被划破,如果没有手套,可用干净的毛巾、衣物、塑料袋等隔绝伤口后再按压。

  2.找准按压位置。按压前应尽量掀开伤者衣物,充分暴露受伤部位,以找准出血位置。

  3.力度适中。按压力度不宜过大,以刚好不出血为宜。

  值得注意的是,如果伤口处的异物不能去除或有骨折等情况,则尽量不要直接按压,最好通过间接按压的方法止血,比如用手指压迫伤口的出血点,但施救者在使用这种方法前需要掌握一些人体血管的解剖走行位置等知识;用手指压迫出血伤口的血管上方(伤口近心端)较为表浅,且贴近硬质骨面的按压点,其中普通人易于掌握的按压点有三个,分别是:

  

  按压点(“达医晓护”供图)

  1.喉结向外旁开2cm动脉搏动处。

  2.上臂肱二头肌下缘,此处为上肢动脉出血的按压点。

  3.大腿根部腹股沟偏内侧,此处为下肢动脉出血的按压点。

  施救者可根据实际情况选择按压点进行按压,但值得注意的是,按压时一定要找准按压点,以摸到脉搏跳动为准。

  作者:云南省急救中心主治医师周国忠

  本文由中国科普作家协会医学科普专委会主任委员王韬进行科学性把关。

  “达医晓护”供稿

  

责任编辑:王超

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