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一颗糖就被别人拐走?家长应这样教会孩子自我保护

科普中国-乐享健康 2017-12-15

  孩子是家长的“心头肉”,特别是当孩子年龄尚幼的时候,家长恨不得每时每刻都与孩子形影不离,不管是逛商场还是外出游玩,都想把孩子带在身边。但家长们也许并不会想到,如果一旦落单,孩子很可能会因为一颗糖、一个玩偶、一辆玩具车等被人诱拐,而这种情况与孩子自我保护意识薄弱脱不了关系。那么,家长该如何提高孩子的自我保护意识呢?

  1.转变教育观念。如今,为了让孩子不输在“起跑线”上,很多家长给孩子报了各种兴趣班、补习班,以帮助孩子学习知识和技能,但很少有家长会有意识地提高孩子的安全意识和防范意识,导致孩子在独自面临危险事件时缺乏应有的应对能力。因此,家长应该转变教育观念,培养孩子的生活能力、自我保护能力、危险应对能力等。此外,有些家长为了让孩子变得勇敢、大方,会鼓励孩子与陌生人交流,但家长们在这样做的时候,一定要帮助孩子提高辨识能力和自我保护意识。

  2.加强安全教育。有的家长认为危险应对能力只有在日积月累中才能提高,甚至觉得“孩子长大后自己就会明白,不需要刻意教授”。但事实上,恰当的安全教育能有效帮助孩子应对危险事件,而且尽早进行此类安全教育能够有效避免危险事件的发生,比如教育孩子在被陌生人强拉强抱时要向路人、安保人员寻求帮助等,要知道这些在家长看来属于常识性的知识,孩子未必懂得。值得注意的是,家长在对孩子进行安全教育的时候要把握分寸,比如应侧重于教授应对危险事件的方式,而不要过度渲染此类事件的危险程度,以免破坏孩子内心的安全感,甚至给孩子造成心理阴影。

  3.进行游戏演练。游戏是孩子理解事物、学习技能最直接、最有效的途径之一,所以家长在与孩子进行游戏互动时,可以加入一些能够提高自我保护意识的环节,比如围绕110、120等急救电话编设情节,让孩子在游戏中知道拨打急救电话时需要说清楚的几个要素,即地点、联系人电话、事件等。家长们可以围绕同样的安全知识编设多种情节,并反复地与孩子进行游戏,这样能够加深孩子的印象。(李娜)

  本文由中国科学院中关村医院心理治疗师张海静进行科学性把关。

  中国心理学会心理学普及工作委员会、中国心理卫生协会妇女健康与发展专业委员会联合供稿。

责任编辑:王超

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