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一和陌生人说话就焦虑不安?3招助你缓解焦虑情绪

科普中国-乐享健康 2017-12-08

  小时候,妈妈经常告诉我们不要和陌生人说话,要注意保护自己,于是我们在面对陌生人时常常显得小心翼翼。随着年龄的增长和社会阅历的增加,大多数人都学会了如何与陌生人结识、交往,但有些人仍然不敢与陌生人说话,而且一说话就焦虑不安,这是不是意味着这些人患有焦虑症呢?

  首先需要明确的一点是,焦虑情绪并不等于焦虑状态,也不等于焦虑症。

  焦虑情绪是一种非常普遍的心理状态,几乎所有人都经历过,尤其是在面对陌生、明确的客观对象(如陌生人)或具体事件(如面试、相亲)时,焦虑情绪更容易出现。从心理学的角度来说,焦虑情绪是一种保护性的心理反应,适度焦虑有利于自我保护和完善。

  焦虑状态是介于焦虑情绪和焦虑症之间的一种状态,可能表现出心慌、心悸、胸闷、乏力、出冷汗等一系列植物神经系统紊乱的症状,以及易怒、紧张等心理症状。但这些症状的持续时间较短,而且具有明确诱因,通常能够通过自我调节的方式得到缓解,对生活影响不大。

  焦虑症又被称为焦虑性神经症,是心理疾病的一种,发作形式包括广泛性焦虑和惊恐发作两种,其中广泛性焦虑比较常见和典型,表现为:

  1.频繁、持续地感到紧张、担心、坐立不安、烦躁等,但又找不到明确诱因。

  2.伴有植物神经系统功能失调的症状,且持续时间较长,没有自行缓解的迹象。

  3.焦虑程度严重,极大地影响着工作和生活,无法自我调节,本人非常痛苦。

  由此可见,面对陌生人时感受到的焦虑不安通常都是一种焦虑情绪,而并非是焦虑症的表现。这种现象可能与个人性格、成长经历、周遭环境等有关,比如对于性格内向的人来说,可能是因为不善交际而显得焦虑。那么,如何改善这种焦虑情绪呢?

  1.勇敢面对。不要对社交抱有回避心理,不妨勇敢地跨出第一步,比如积极参加志愿活动,并主动向陌生的志愿伙伴问好等。

  2.树立自信。尺有所短、寸有所长,要积极提高自己的交流能力,但就算不善于语言交流也不必过于在意,要知道语言交流只是人际交往的一种形式,自己可以通过其它方式来表达善意和友好,比如积极参加集体劳动、乐于助人等。

  3.降低要求。不要患得患失,过于在意别人对自己的看法,要知道没有人是十全十美的,只要把最好的自己展现出来即可。(张晓菲)

  本文由中国科学院中关村医院心理治疗师张海静进行科学性把关。

  中国心理学会心理学普及工作委员会、中国心理卫生协会妇女健康与发展专业委员会联合供稿

责任编辑:王超

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