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为什么要造那么多火星车

2018-01-03 来源:科普生活网

  

    作者:卞毓麟

  2004年1月3日,美国“勇气号”火星车在火星表面成功着陆,并发回了火星照片。那么,火星车是怎么回事?为什么要造那么多火星车?

  火星是否存在生命,或是否曾经有过生命,是一个很重要的问题。要找到这个问题的答案,就需要探测器亲临火星进行考察。人类已经发射了好几十个火星探测器,其中有的只是从火星近旁一掠而过,例如美国的“水手4号”;有的进入环绕火星的轨道,成为火星的人造卫星,例如“水手9号”;有的直接着陆到火星表面,例如“海盗1号”和“海盗2号”,对火星的地表进行探测,发回了很多宝贵资料。

  但是上述探测器并不能在火星表面自由活动,探测范围有限,于是人们又制造了火星车。火星车可以在火星上自动行驶,大大拓展了科学考察的范围。

  火星车在火星表面自动行驶,寻找最有价值的考察地点,对于扩大样品采集范围极为有用。派一辆火星车向火星上那些庞大的峡谷中挺进几百千米,它也许就能从厚达数千米的火星地层中采集样品。那里的一系列岩层保存着火星地质史上的许多记录,它们是了解火星历史演变状况的重要线索。迄今已有4辆火星车登上火星:1997年的“旅居者号”,2004年的“勇气号”和“机遇号”,以及2012年8月的“好奇号”。人类总有一天会像多年前登上月球那样,亲自登上火星。而在此之前,科学家需要火星车不断地搜集火星上各种详细、可靠的“情报”。

  关键词:火星车

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